Tin pest can occur in lead-free solders, leading to loss of the soldered joint. Tetraalkyl- and tetraaryltin compounds can be prepared using Grignard reagents:[39]. Studies have shown that nausea and vomiting have been induced by consuming food with 200 mg/kg of tin. [100], Cases of poisoning from tin metal, its oxides, and its salts are almost unknown. The problem was partially solved by Sony. lower the transition temperature well below 0 °C (32 °F) and, on the addition of antimony or bismuth, the transformation might not occur at all, increasing the durability of the tin. Corrosion could lead to intoxication. Tools, weapons and figures made of metals including tin have been found and dated as far back as the year 3,000 B.C. An assessment of the facts about tin will show that usage of tin as a pure metal didn’t start until 600 BC. Another popular choice is open cast mining. [24][25], The Latin name stannum originally meant an alloy of silver and lead, and came to mean 'tin' in the 4th century[26]—the earlier Latin word for it was plumbum candidum, or "white lead". It does not form wide solid solution ranges in other metals in general, and few elements have appreciable solid solubility in tin. The use of tin is still increasing. Its application is somewhat limited by the fact that some tin surfaces[which?] It can be found in other sulfides like teallite and franckeite. Of these, the most abundant are 120Sn (almost a third of all tin), 118Sn, and 116Sn, while the least abundant is 115Sn. Simple eutectic systems, however, occur with bismuth, gallium, lead, thallium and zinc. Pure tin after solidifying keeps a mirror-like appearance similar to most metals. Decorative piercing designs exist in a wide variety, based on local tradition and the artisan's personal creations. Organotin(II) compounds include both stannylenes (formula: R2Sn, as seen for singlet carbenes) and distannylenes (R4Sn2), which are roughly equivalent to alkenes. Of these eight compounds, only the iodides are colored. [33], Tin(II) chloride (also known as stannous chloride) is the most important tin halide in a commercial sense. Tin is often recovered from granules washed downstream in the past and deposited in valleys or the sea. This continued well into the 20th century. [58] The price increased again by 2010 with a rebound in consumption following the 2008–09 world economic crisis, accompanying restocking and continued growth in consumption by the world's developing economies. Cassiterite (SnO2) is the only commercially important source of tin, although small quantities of tin are recovered from complex sulfides such as stannite, cylindrite, franckeite, canfieldite, and teallite. Sulfides of tin exist in both the +2 and +4 oxidation states: tin(II) sulfide and tin(IV) sulfide (mosaic gold). Metallic tin does not easily oxidize in air. Other forms of tin ores are less abundant sulfides such as stannite that require a more involved smelting process. China, Laos and Indonesia were among the countries that also utilized the element. Window glass is created from floating molten glass with molten tin. [9][10], β-tin (the metallic form, or white tin, BCT structure), which is stable at and above room temperature, is malleable. [94] Imposex is the imposition of male sexual characteristics on female specimens where they will start to grow a penis and a pallial vans deferens. All four halides are known for Sn(II) also: SnF2, SnCl2, SnBr2, and SnI2. When a bar of tin is bent, a crackling sound known as the "tin cry" can be heard from the twinning of the crystals. When a tin/lead alloy cools, the lead phase solidifies first, then when the eutectic temperature is reached the remaining liquid forms the layered tin/lead eutectic structure, which is shiny and the contrast with the lead phase produces a mottled or spotted effect. In the largest application, stannous chloride is a common reducing agent for the conversion of nitro and oxime groups to amines. Bell metal is also a copper–tin alloy, containing 22% tin.
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