Kvalita a chuť vodky se mohou lišit vlivem různých faktorů. [39], This pure grain alcohol, also known as rectified spirit, neutral spirit, or ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin is also available directly to consumers in some areas, as products such as Everclear, Polmos spirits rektyfikowany, and others. Pokhlebkin is also known for his Pan-Slavic sympathies under the leadership of Russia and sentiments that, in David Christian's opinion, discredit most of his work, especially his History of Vodka.[25]. Vodka je väčšinou čírej farby, a výrazne alkoholickej chuti. Burning wine was usually diluted with water to 24% ABV or less before drinking. [38] Similar methods are used in other regions such as Europe. Jedná se o to, že tento alkoholický nápoj se vyrábí z obilí, jehož specifické složení určuje výrobce. In contrast, the distillery process for liquors such as whiskey, rum, and baijiu allow portions of the "heads" and "tails" to remain, giving them their unique flavors. Some filed for bankruptcy, but many were privatized, leading to the creation of various new brands.[20]. During the martial law of the 1980s, the sale of vodka was rationed. In a book of travels published in English in 1780 (presumably, a translation from German), Johann Gottlieb Georgi correctly explained that "kabak in the Russian language signifies a public house for the common people to drink vodka (a sort of brandy) in. The flavored varieties come in 38%. [4][5] Vodka in the United States must have a minimum alcohol content of 40%.[6]. [5], Under Canadian regulations, Vodka is a potable alcoholic beverage created by treatment of grain spirit or potato spirit with charcoal, which renders the product without aroma, taste or distinctive character. Viru Valge is a vodka produced in Estonia by Liviko. Some Polish vodka blends go back centuries. Pije se ledeno hladna iz majhnih kozarčkov ali kot sestavina številnih koktajlov [10], Although the word vodka could be found in early manuscripts and lubok pictograms, it began to appear in Russian dictionaries only in the mid-19th century. This regulation entered into force in 2008. While most vodkas are unflavored, many flavored vodkas have been produced in traditional vodka-drinking areas, often as home-made recipes to improve vodka's taste or for medicinal purposes. These components of the distillate contain flavor compounds such as ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate (heads) as well as the fusel oils (tails) that impact the usually desired clean taste of vodka. [31] In 2013, the organizers of the so-called "vodka car" were jailed for two and a half years for having illegally provided thousands of liters to young people, some as young as 13. This level has fluctuated somewhat during the 20th century but remained quite high at all times. Although initially a grain product, potatoes started to be used in the production in the late 18th century and became dominant from the early 19th century. The late 18th century inaugurated the production of vodka from various unusual substances including even the carrot. The first distillate was called brantówka, the second was szumówka, and the third was okowita (from aqua vitae), which generally contained 70–80% ABV. Korotayev, A., Khaltourina, D., Meshcherina, K., & Zamiatnina, E. Distilled Spirits Overconsumption as the Most Important Factor of Excessive Adult Male Mortality in Europe. [19], In Poland, vodka (Polish: wódka or gorzałka) has been produced since the early Middle Ages with local traditions as varied as the production of cognac in France, or Scottish whisky. Following the success of the Solidarity movement and the abolition of single-party rule in Poland, many distilleries began struggling financially. "The Boozy Ingredient Your Baked Goods Are Missing", History in a Vodka Bottle: How Baczewski Ruled European Royal Courts, Invented Marketing & Rose from the Ashes, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vodka&oldid=990443457, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Swedish-language text, Articles containing Ukrainian-language text, Articles containing Belarusian-language text, Instances of Lang-be using second unnamed parameter, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Articles containing Samogitian-language text, Articles containing Latvian-language text, Articles containing Finnish-language text, Articles containing Norwegian-language text, Articles needing additional references from August 2017, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Central, Northern and Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, Made from grains such as wheat and corn or potatoes, This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 14:30. At the time, the word wódka referred to chemical compounds such as medicines and cosmetics' cleansers, while the popular beverage currently known as vodka was called gorzałka (from the Old Polish verb gorzeć meaning "to burn"), which is also the source of Ukrainian horilka (горілка). Vodka (Polish: wódka [ˈvutka], Russian: водка [ˈvotkə], Swedish: vodka [vɔdkɑː]) is a clear distilled alcoholic beverage with different varieties originating in Poland, Russia and Sweden. In Russia, vodka flavored with honey and pepper, pertsovka in Russian, is also very popular. Up until the 1950s, vodka was not used as a designation for Swedish distilled beverages, which were instead called brännvin ("burn-wine"), the word having the same etymology as the Dutch Brandewijn, which is the base for the word brandy. Multiple terms for the drink were recorded, sometimes reflecting different levels of quality, alcohol concentration, filtering, and the number of distillations; most commonly, it was referred to as "burning wine", "bread wine", or even in some locations simply "wine". [17][18] For many centuries, beverages differed significantly compared to the vodka of today, as the spirit at that time had a different flavor, color, and smell, and was originally used as medicine. Some vodkas are made from potatoes, molasses, soybeans, grapes, rice, sugar beets and sometimes even byproducts of oil refining[33] or wood pulp processing. Vodka je pôvodom ruský alkoholický nápoj. Pomenovanie pochádza zo slovanského slova pre vodu.. Konzumuje sa buď čistá (spravidla chladená) alebo v koktailoch zmiešaná s inými nápojmi (alkoholickými či nealkoholickými). [23] By 1911, vodka comprised 89% of all alcohol consumed in Russia. Soon, however, Gdańsk outpaced both these cities. Pokhlebkin claimed that while there is a wealth of publications about the history of consumption and distribution of vodka, virtually nothing had been written about vodka production. Most notable are Żubrówka, from about the 16th century; Goldwasser, from the early 17th century; and aged Starka vodka, from the 16th century. It is produced in different flavors ranging from lemon to blackcurrant. In Lithuania and Poland, a famous vodka containing honey is called krupnik. The process of flavoring vodka so that it tastes like fruits, chocolate, and other foods occurs after fermentation and distillation. Thus, this beverage was closely associated with Moscow. Russian Demographic Crisis in Cross-National Perspective. A. Baczewski. ©2018 Immortal Brands LLC, Dallas, TX. This "bread wine", as it was initially known, was for a long time produced exclusively in the Grand Duchy of Moscow and in no other principality of Rus' (this situation persisted until the era of industrial production). [24], During the late 1970s, Russian culinary author William Pokhlebkin compiled a history of the production of vodka in Russia, as part of the Soviet case in a trade dispute; this was later published as A History of Vodka. [44], Under the Code of Federal Regulations (27 CFR 5.22), which define the identity standards for various alcohols, vodka is in the class of neutral spirits and is defined as: "neutral spirits so distilled, or so treated after distillation with charcoal or other materials, as to be without distinctive character, aroma, taste, or color".[45]. The most recent estimates put it at 70% (2001). It is also used in cocktails and mixed drinks, such as the vodka martini, Cosmopolitan, vodka tonic, screwdriver, greyhound, Black or White Russian, Moscow mule, Bloody Mary, and Caesar. 272–281. References Since the year 2000, due to evolving consumer tastes and regulatory changes, several 'artisanal vodka' or even 'ultra premium vodka' brands have appeared. [10] At the time, wódka referred to medicines and cosmetic products, while the beverage was called gorzałka (from the Old Polish gorzeć meaning "to burn"), which is also the source of Ukrainian horilka (горілка).
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