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science, scientific method and critique in sociology pdf
According to him they must be supplemented with additional methods especially relevant to social sciences like the Verstehen approach and ideal type. Social sciences study the human behaviour which is guided by meanings and motives, and any attempt to study human behaviour would be incomplete unless it takes into account these meanings and motives. The impact of ideological biases on social-research can be very far-reaching as seen from the study of Tepostalan village in Mexico. (e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism. (b) Geographical spread. The word science comes from the Latin scire meaning “to know,” and for centuries “science” referred to virtually any academic discipline, including theology, languages, and literature. Thus complete objectivity continues to be an elusive goal. For meaningful understanding facts must be ordered in some fashion, analysed, generalized, and related to other facts. (iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:(a) Evolution of the modern industry in India(b) Growth of urban settlements in India. • critique of the individual methods Methodology refers to more than a simple set of methods; it refers to the rationale and the philosophical assumptions that underlie a particular study. The investigation is guided by previously collected information. Thus, in scientific precision, one avoids colorful literature and vague meanings. (e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas. Also they draw attention to the mercurial nature of man and they see in the positivistic approach an attempt to reduce man to a passive being. (b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology. Thus according to P.V Young interview sometimes carries a subjectivity. She achieved this by tracing these features through wide range of their manifestation in the cultures of the people she examined. Therefore we cannot think of facts and theory as being opposed rather they are interrelated in many complex ways. Critically examine the r…, Terrorism is emerging as a competitive industry over the last few decades.” Analyse the above …, How do’ pressure groups influence Indian political process? In all societies there are certain prejudices which affect the research studies. The individual and society are regarded, as inseparable for the individual can become a human being only in a social context. However if we observe the way scientists actually do research, it becomes clear. (2)       They lead to the reformulation of existing theory. Another approach belonging to social anthropology that can also be categorized as an interpretive approach starts with a description of commonly accepted meanings that people attribute to social phenomena. Sociology is commonly described as one of the social sciences. In this lecture, the educator will be discussing Science, Scientific Method, and Critique from Sociology … The scientists are always impressed by authenticated reports. The term symbolic interactionist used because it is through symbols that meanings, motives and attributes are conveyed. (5)       They clarify and redefine theory. Facts are thought to be definite, certain, without question and their meaning to be self-evident. The sociologist should try to figure out meanings and motives given by the actor. Like Freud, Weber never really believed in an enduring peace or in a final resolution of this conflict. Theory and fact are not diametrically opposed but inextricably intertwined. Certain sociologists like. (b) Structural functionalism (M. N. Objectivity, i.e., being free from all biases and vested interests. Theory is supposed to be realm of philosophers. A. Thus the subject matter of social science is qualitatively different from that of physical and natural sciences. it summarizes facts into empirical generalizations and systems of generalizations. They are generally conceived as direct opposites. As it is more like a Class Notes covers important and crucial concepts and FAQs with great explanations. Instead of saying, “I interviewed a large number of people”, one says, “I interviewed 493 persons”. This requires the use of new method through which an empathetic liaison can be established between the observer and the actor. Nature of the scientific method The “scientific method” attempts to minimize the influence of the researchers' bias on the outcome of an experiment. Relevance: Sociology: Sociology as Science: Science, scientific method and critique. Then what is meant as clarified by Max Weber value-free sociology means that the sociologist while carrying social research must confine called value relevance. it has perspective, a consensus with regard to subject matter and a set of methods to explore the subject matter, it may not be called a positive science but it is definitely a social science. The value-free doctrine has a paradoxical potentiality; it might enable men to make better value judgments rather than none. Sociology, being a late comer was also influenced and developed under the shadow of these positive sciences. He defined social facts in such a way that they were amenable to sensory observation and exploratory generalization about them could be made by using positive science methods. Thus, social interaction must be interpreted in terms of these commonsense meanings, however for ethnomethodologist the basic problem of Sociology goes back even further than this. Objectivity is a goal of scientific investigation. Since human memory is falliable, all data collected are recorded. We highly encourage visitors to Buy the Original content from their Official Sites. According to Gunnar Myrdal total value neutrality is impossible. To some degree meanings are created, modified, developed and changed within interactive situation rather than being fixed and preformed. Many university teachers divide their time between teaching and research. Thus sociology being a science cherishes the goal of value neutrality. Your email address will not be published. It is the Primary source material from which most of the questions asked in Civil service exams. Sociology also employs the same general methods of investigation that are used in the natural sciences. Various methods of data collection research should be used and the result obtained from one should be cross-checked with those from the other.
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