Unstressed [a ~ ɐ ~ ə] occurs in all other environments. A phonemic distinction is made between close-mid vowels /e o/ and the open-mid vowels /ɛ ɔ/, as in Italian, Catalan and French, though there is a certain amount of vowel alternation. It occurs in unstressed syllables such as in pegar [pɯ̽ˈɣaɾ] ('to grip'). For example, /i/ occurs instead of unstressed /e/ or /ɨ/, word-initially or before another vowel in hiatus (teatro, reúne, peão). The dialects of Portugal are characterized by reducing vowels to a greater extent than others. Semivowels contrast with unstressed high vowels in verbal conjugation, as in, In some of Brazil and Angola, the consonant hereafter denoted as, In northern and central Portugal, the voiced stops. The /e-ɛ/ and /o-ɔ/ distinction does not happen in nasal vowels; ⟨em om⟩ are pronounced as close-mid. In the Lisbon accent, the diphthong [ɐj] often has an onset that is more back than central, i.e. At the end of a word ⟨em⟩ is always pronounced [ẽj̃] with a clear nasal palatal approximant (see below). European Portuguese has also two central vowels, one of which tends to be elided like the e caduc of French. It provides a set of symbols to represent the pronunciation of Portuguese in Wikipedia articles, and example words that illustrate the sounds that correspond to them. One of the most salient differences between European and Brazilian Portuguese is their prosody. Also, male speakers of Brazilian Portuguese speak faster than female speakers and speak in a more stress-timed manner. In poetry, however, an apostrophe may be used to show elision such as in d'água. Distinction is noted between the two major standards—that of Portugal (EP) and of Brazil (BP). This affects especially the sibilant consonants /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, and the unstressed final vowels /ɐ/, /i, ɨ/, /u/. IPA: o.ˈɫa ˈmũ.du! The stressed relatively open vowels /a, ɛ, ɔ/ contrast with the stressed relatively close vowels /ɐ, e, o/ in several kinds of grammatically meaningful alternation: There are also pairs of unrelated words that differ in the height of these vowels, such as besta /e/ ('beast') and besta /ɛ/ ('crossbow'); mexo /e/ ('I move') and mecho /ɛ/ ('I highlight [hair]'); molho /o/ ('sauce') and molho /ɔ/ ('bunch'); corte /ɔ/ ('cut') and corte /o/ ('court'); meta /e/ ('I put' subjunctive) and meta /ɛ/ ('goal'); and (especially in Portugal) para /ɐ/ ('for') and para /a/ ('he stops'); forma /o/ ('mold') and forma /ɔ/ ('shape'). Portuguese uses vowel height to contrast stressed syllables with unstressed syllables; the vowels /a ɛ e ɔ o/ tend to be raised to [ɐ ɛ ɨ ɔ u] (although [ɨ] occurs only in EP and AP) when they are unstressed (see below for details). IPA vowel chart for European Portuguese in SVG format. presidente [pɾeziˈdẽtɨ]. But a nasal consonant subsists when it is followed by a plosive, e.g. For example, psicologia ('psychology') may be pronounced [pisikoloˈʒiɐ]; adverso ('adverse') may be pronounced [adʒiˈvɛχsu]; McDonald's may be pronounced [mɛ̞kiˈdõnawdʒis]. Nasal vowels, vowels that belong to falling diphthongs, and the high vowels /i/ and /u/ are not affected by this process, nor is the vowel /o/ when written as the digraph ⟨ou⟩ (pronounced /ow/ in conservative EP). Syllables have the maximal structure of (C)(C)V(C). However, Angolan Portuguese has been more conservative, raising /a/, /e, ɛ/, /o, ɔ/ to /a/, /e/, /o/ in unstressed syllables; and to /ɐ/, /ɨ/, /u/ in final unstressed syllables. Portuguese has one of the richest vowel phonologies of all Romance languages, having both oral and nasal vowels, diphthongs, and triphthongs. But in word-final unstressed position and not followed by, The system of eight monophthongs reduces to five—. [28] Elsewhere, their occurrence is predictable by context, with dialectal variations in realization.
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