different philosophical underpinnings of the various qualitative research methods generate discrete ways of reasoning and distinct terminology; however, there are also many similarities within these methods. underpinnings of qualitative research with some exercises to gauge the readers’ knowledge and understanding about the given topics. Most qualitative research emerges from the 'interpretivist' paradigm. Before launching into each paradigm it may be useful to define terms. Five Common Paradigms . Because of this and its subjective nature, qualitative research it is often regarded as more difficult to critique. intentions, goals and philosophical assumptions are inextricably linked with the research they do. On a philosophical level, there is irreconcilable confl … This burgeoning interest in qualitative research methods from early times is not without confusion, controversy, and experience of a 2 research philosophy and qualitative interviews in this chapter: choosing a philosophy of research differences between positivist and naturalist–constructionist paradigms an illustration of the differences in practice variations on the core paradigm positivism yields to postpositivism Keywords: Paradigm, Phenomenology, Philosophical underpinnings, Qualitative research [DIMENS CRIT CARE NURS. Two very different paradigms, or theoretical frameworks, positivism/post-positivism and interpretivism commonly (but not always) underpin quantitative and qualitative research respectively and are summarised in Table 4. 2 the foundations of qualitative research We begin with a brief introduction to the philosophical underpinnings, history and traditions of qualitative research. Various researchers employing either qualitative or quantitative researches should better understand the different competing research paradigms and its philosophical underpinnings in relation to ontology, epistemology, methodology and even the Philosophy underpinning qualitative research. Nevertheless, an The first two (2) sections tackled the philosophical underpinnings and diverse designs of qualitative research. 2017;36(3):208/216] Qualitative research has made a strong impression on nursing science since the 1990s. Various researchers employing either qualitative or quantitative researches should better understand the different competing research paradigms and its philosophical underpinnings in relation to ontology, epistemology, methodology and even the methods in collecting and analyzing data to produce an excellent research. Grix, (2004) warns that people who want to conduct clear, precise research and evaluate other’s research need to understand the philosophical underpinnings that inform their choice of research questions, methodology, methods and intentions (p. 57). This article focuses on the philosophical underpinnings of qualitative research methods. Although new and still emerging for us, qualitative research approaches have been receiving considerable attention for some time in other disciplines. While we describe the epistemological, ontological and methodological underpinnings of a variety of paradigms, one need not identify with a paradigm when doing qualitative research. This is not intended as a comprehensive or detailed account, but rather as edited highlights of some of the key issues in an ever advancing process. Along with philosophical debates, there are debates about whether there needs to be a debate. 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