eCollection 2017 Winter. The interviewer had no personal knowledge of the study participants prior to the study. All the research participants described advocating for the patient as being patient's voice. Detailed descriptions of participants' characteristics, demographic data and the study setting have been documented in this study. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. Third, identification of significant statements, key phrases, single words and sentences of each participant's transcript as the unit of analysis. Nursing ranks of these participants ranged from staff nurse to principal nursing officer. Two participants said that: Some participants described patient advocacy in the clinical setting as educating patients through interpersonal relationship. Yet, there is limited documentation about how nurses understand and carry out their advocacy role in Ghanaian healthcare settings. Tell me more about your views on patient advocacy in the clinical setting. Patient advocacy saved lives, helped to maintain good health, decreased the nurses' workload, ensured caring and quality care of patients, quick recovery and minimized burdens on the healthcare system. This finding implies that the nurses' role of patient advocacy is crucial to minimizing injury, enhancing safety and optimal care for patients and their family members. Participants described patient advocacy as providing quality patient care including taking good care of the patient and helping them when needed. This result seems consistent with Abbaszadeh et al. Abbaszadeh et al. Advocating for patients means help them financially in terms of management of their bills. Besides, Thacker (2008) asserted that successful advocacy resides in the nurse–patient relationship. The participants' descriptions of patient advocacy were similar to those already mentioned in nursing literature. The steps below illustrate how the qualitative content analysis was carried out. According to Black (2011), nurses may choose not to advocate if the advocacy process becomes very complex and also due to fear of losing their jobs. Rather, a collective experiences of their practice as Registered Nurses across the various units in the clinical setting since most themes were mentioned by more than one participant. Nurses became both legally and ethically accountable to the patient. The view expressed here is in line with Gadow's model of existential advocacy (1980) which viewed advocacy as the ideal nature and purpose of the nurse–patient relationship. It enables researchers to gain an understanding of individuals' underlying reasons, opinions and motives, as well as insight into the problem (Creswell, 2014). Advocacy allows nurses to defend and promote patients' rights and interest in such situations (Black, 2011; Graham, 2012). Patient advocacy has been described by Jackson et al. DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol17No01Man01 Key words: Florence Nightingale, advocacy, nursing, professionNursing has never been simple. A qualitative approach with descriptive study design was used to meet the set objective. In our case for instance when you want to admit a patient, then you need to get her to understand the reasons for the admission, the complications and get the family on board to help in the health care delivery. In ensuring authenticity, direct quotes from participants' narrations have been provided. It is known from this study that the absence of patient advocacy means the patient's voice would most likely not be heard. These nurses believed that it was not only the nurse who could advocate for patents. (Mrs. O7, 1‐5 yr of experience).  |  Patient advocacy is an essential component of the Registered Nurse professional role. For instance, Black (2011) revealed an increased in hospital‐acquired infections due to the nurses' inability to advocate for their patients. Finally, the study data were managed appropriately to prevent breach of confidentiality. Method: This study made significant contribution to the understanding of patient advocacy and its positive effect on the provision of quality care of patients in the Ghanaian context.  |  (2016) commented that advocacy was more than providing good care. Background: The participants made the following comments: The interpersonal relationship as described by all participants dealt with interaction with patients and establishing rapport with the patient and family member. Int J Nurs Stud. (Mr. P3, 6‐10 yr of experience), Ok to me basically it is being the mouth piece of the patient in terms of you communicating their needs and concerns… (Mr. P 1, 1‐5 yr of experience), As nurses we always advocate for the patient as part of giving quality health care…it means going out of your way to help patients get or achieve the best care they are supposed to have. The authors were aware of their own ideas and did not allow their personal views to influence the analysis of the data (Creswell, 2014). Therefore, themes identified were derived directly from the content of the data obtained from participant's responses during the interview (Creswell, 2014; Polit & Beck, 2014). The study participants believed that patients were vulnerable and limited in knowledge about their health conditions and the best treatment options. A total sample size of 25 was selected from the study population of 51 Registered Nurses. This point covered the areas of giving physical, emotional and financial support for patients. Thus, advocating for them meant respecting them, recognizing their individualities and giving them dignify care without any intimidation. Graham (2012) argued that even competent patients are also at risk of making wrong decisions due to insufficient information, making nursing advocacy very essential. Theoretical saturation was attained as mention of themes became increasingly redundant (Creswell, 2014). Current emphasis on patient safety has increased the awareness of the critical role advocacy plays in promoting safe clinical practice. First, to achieve credibility, detailed description of sampling method, data collection procedure and analysis were clearly documented. Conclusion: This study has implications for an improvement in patient advocacy and quality care of patients. Second, reading through all the transcribed data for complete understanding. This finding provided evidence to support Davoodvand and co‐workers (2016) and Thacker (2008) who ascertained that advocating for patients involved the nurse undertaking many actions that enhanced patient safety and quality care. The study commenced after permission was granted by both Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the University and the authorities at the hospital where the study occurred. We put our heads together, collect money to pay and discharge them after they are discharged by the doctor. The aim was to get familiar with the content of the data, make sense of the raw data and to also enhance proper description, interpretation and discussion of the phenomenon of interest to meet the set objective (Creswell, 2014; Miles & Huberman, 1994). Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. The research question for the study was “How do Registered Nurses describe patient advocacy in the clinical setting?”. A similarly study by Davoodvand et al. (Mrs. O2, 1‐5 yr of experience), …What I understand is that you take good care of them… (Mrs. O6, 21 & above yr of experience). The content of advocacy in procedural pain care - patients' and nurses' perspectives. eCollection 2019 Jul. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Patients should be valued and respected as individuals with specific needs, giving them dignified care without any form of intimidation. To address this objective, participants were asked to describe their understanding of patient advocacy in the clinical setting. Other authors like Davoodvand, Abbaszadeh, and Ahmadi (2016) viewed patient advocacy from the perspective of empowering patients to advocate on their own behalf in the healthcare setting. They believed that all patients are vulnerable and limited in knowledge about their health conditions compared with the nurse. Most themes were mentioned by more than one participant. It beholds on nursing educational institutional authorities to put in measures to ensure that the training of nursing students enhances their ability to undertake effective patient advocacy activities. Abstract: Patient advocacy is one of the concept that is integral to the philosophy of nursing. Vaartio H, Leino-Kilpi H, Suominen T, Puukka P. J Adv Nurs. On the other hand, Motamed‐Jahromi, Abbaszadeh, Borhani, and Zaher (2012) viewed the concept of advocacy as a philosophical principle in the nursing profession. Nurses' patient advocacy behaviours not only can positively influence the patients, other nurses and the nursing profession, but also can cause negative consequences for nurses who take action to advocate for patients. Theoretical saturation was attained as mention of themes became increasingly redundant (Creswell, 2014). Nurs Open. 2020 Mar;28(2):247-258. doi: 10.1111/jonm.12914. It also involved getting to know the patients, their needs, respecting and valuing them as well as involving them in the entire care. Hence, patient advocacy is simply providing quality care for patients. This implies that without patient advocacy, nursing care of patients might not meet the actual needs of patients, resulting in limited quality care.
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