Language minority students can be found in schools across the country, not just those in large cities or in areas near the U.S.-Mexican border. the bilingual model at one end and English-only at the other. These differ from early-exit programs "primarily in the amount and duration that English is used for instruction as well as the length of time students are to participate in each program" (Ramirez, Yuen, & Ramey, 1991). The best program organization is one that is tailored to meet the linguistic, academic, and affective needs of students; provides language minority students with the instruction necessary to allow them to progress through school at a rate commensurate with their native-English-speaking peers; and makes the best use of district and community resources. Although it is difficult to coordinate schedules around specials and lunch times, this type of model may allow the ESL specialist to group students across classrooms or grade levels who are at a similar level of English proficiency for ESL support. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Successful program models for promoting the academic achievement of language minority students are those that enable these students to develop academic skills while learning English. In this type of model the ESL specialist can sometimes even provide an extra set of hands in a way that is useful for the entire class. Promoting the success of Latino language minority students: An Exploratory study of six high schools. Lucas T., Henze, R., & Donato, R. (1990). Excerpted from: Rennie, J. ESL programs can accommodate students from different language backgrounds in the same class, and teachers do not need to be proficient in the home language(s) of their students. Social Integration/Stigmatization: How can ELLs most feel a sense of “belonging” in school? This model is often used to provide intensive content instruction to ELs by trained ELTs who provide extensive scaffolding and differentiation based on language needs. By the year 2000, it is anticipated that the number of limited-English-proficient (LEP). ○ Conclusion ○ Resources ○ Appendix 1: Declaration of Rights for Parents of English Language Learners under No Child Left Behind ○ Appendix 2: Legislation of the 108th Congress concerning Foreign Languages and International Education ○ Appendix 3: Six Levels of Minority Language Policy, 228 Chambers BuildingUniversity Park, PA 16802(814) 865-0488. An effective ESL program model is never going to be one-size-fits-all. Instructional programs for English language learners occupy a continuum with the bilingual model at one end and English-only at the other. National Association of Elementary School Principals. ○ How can I support ELLs in my classroom? These programs are most easily implemented in districts with a large number of students from the same language background. However, different models may be appropriate for different settings. It is important that the team teaching occur in the curriculum areas in which ELLs would need the most language support. This program model is especially effective for beginning ELLs who need to develop “survival” English skills. Visit WETA's other education websites: Start with a Book  |  Reading Rockets |  AdLit  |  LD OnLine, Web development by Boxcar Studio and Rapid Development Group, A bilingual site for educators and families of English language learners. Her ESL program is a NJ model program benefiting all students and practitioners. Students spend part of the school day in a mainstream classroom, but are pulled out for a portion of each day to receive instruction in English as a second language. Cons: English Immersion is the least effective practice of all the program models or ELs in secondary school: … Tikunoff, W., Ward, B., van Broekhuizen, D., Romero, M., Castaneda, L.V., Lucas, T., & Katz, A. As ESL specialists or schools consider which program model to employ, there are four essential factors for them to consider. Nowadays all schools must be prepared to meet the challenge of an increasingly diverse student population, including many students who are not proficient in English. Scheduling Issues: How can time be negotiated to fit students in multiple grade levels? Santa Cruz, CA and Washington, DC: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning. Students in bilingual programs are grouped according to their first language, and teachers must be proficient in both English and the students' home language. ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. Ramirez, J. D., Yuen, S. D., & Ramey, D. R. (1991). Digest based on an article in (August, 1993) Streamlined Seminar (vol. The goal is full English language proficiency. ESL instruc-tional groupings in September will look Table 1 illustrates the range of programs within the continuum of instructional models for English language learners. ESL programs can accommodate students from different language backgrounds in the same class, and teachers do not need to be proficient in the home language(s) of their students. In between are many gradations, depending on the needs of the population. Ideally, there is a nearly 50/50 balance between language minority and language majority students. Serving and Supporting Immigrant Students, Bilingual & Dual-Language Education: Overview, Schools and Families: An Important Partnership, 8 Strategies for Building Relationships with ELLs in Any Learning Environment, Language Objectives: The Key to Effective Content Area Instruction for English Learners, Supporting ELLs in the Mainstream Classroom: Language Tips, Essential Actions: 15 Research-based Practices to Increase ELL Student Achievement, Program Models for Teaching English Language Learners, Sheltered English or content-based programs. Children from families in which English is not the language of the home represent a rapidly increasing percentage of students enrolled in U.S. schools. This is generally used in middle school settings. You must have JavaScript enabled to use this form. Students remain in late-exit programs throughout elementary school and continue to receive 40% or more of their instruction in their first language, even when they have been reclassified as fluent-English-proficient. ERIC Digest. Garcia, E. (1991). ERIC Digest. ESL and Bilingual Program Models. ED 338 099). Structured immersion teachers have strong receptive skills in their students' first language and have a bilingual education or ESL teaching credential. BILINGUAL/ESL PROGRAMS BE-Transitional BE-Dual ESL Early Exit Late Exit 2 Way 1 Way ESL Content Pull Out • Most Effective Research Based Model • High Academic Literacy in 2 Languages • High Academic Achievement in all Content Areas in 2 Languages • Cultural Competence • All Students – English Learners and English Speakers These use only English, but there is no explicit ESL instruction. To meet the two (2) criteria of effective and compliant ESL programs, districts shall implement ESL programs. The specialist may assist ELLs with the same lesson that the rest of the class is doing or modify the lesson or assignment in some way. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 6, 347-361. Resource Guide for Working with ESL Students. The ESL specialist could also assist while the classroom teacher instructs the whole class by displaying pictures, keywords, or providing other aids to comprehension. Some programs provide neither instruction in the native language nor direct instruction in ESL. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. Transitional bilingual education: ELLs may receive instruction in both English and their home language for one to three years, but the goal is to develop English language proficiency as soon as possible. Lines and paragraphs break automatically. In between are many gradations, depending on the needs of the population. ○ What does the ESL specialist need from me? Table 1 illustrates the range of programs within the continuum of instructional models for English language … Structuring your ESL conversation is a very important part of the discussion, and without a good plan, your conversation can stall and deteriorate quick. The specialist may work with students individually at their seats or as a group someplace in the classroom. Education of linguistically and culturally diverse students: Effective instructional practices. Appendix 1: Declaration of Rights for Parents of English Language Learners under No Child Left Behind, Appendix 2: Legislation of the 108th Congress concerning Foreign Languages and International Education, Appendix 3: Six Levels of Minority Language Policy, Educational Psychology, Counseling, and Special Education. ○ What are common program models for ESL education? Instruction is provided in both English and the minority language. 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